AN-1252 APPLICATION NOTE One Technology Way • P.O. Box 9106 • Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A. • Tel: 781.329.4700 • Fax: 781.461.3113 • www.analog.com How to Configure the AD5933/AD5934 by Miguel Usach INTRODUCTION The AD5933 and AD5934 are high precision impedance converter system solutions. The main difference between these two solutions is the maximum measurable frequency. This application note applies to both parts. The main blocks of the AD5933 and AD5934 are shown in Figure 1. The output programmable gain amplifier (PGA) is used for conditioning the output signal. It can be configured in four user selectable excitation voltages. Receive Stage The receive stage consists of The impedance converter is a finite system and has some limitations. This application note only aims to explain the optimum setup for measurements. • • • IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENT BLOCKS Impedance converters can be divided into three different blocks: a transmit stage, a receive stage, and a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) engine. The transimpedance amplifier (TIA) that converts the current that crosses the impedance into voltage The input PGA that amplifies the TIA signal ×1 or ×5 The ADC that samples the signal and fills the internal buffer (1024 points) DFT Engine The DFT engine processes the data and generates real (R) and imaginary (I) number components. Transmit Stage The DDS core and the high speed DAC generate a sine wave signal used to excite the impedance. MCLK DDS + DAC OSCILLATOR OUTPUT PGA VOUT Z(ω) AD5933/AD5934 RFB 3pF VIN ADC (12 BITS) LPF INPUT PGA TIA VDD/2 Figure 1. AD5933/AD5934 Block Diagram Rev. 0 | Page 1 of 12 11834-001 1024-POINT DFT ENGINE AN-1252 Application Note TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction ...................................................................................... 1 Choosing an Appropriate Settling Time ....................................5 Impedance Measurement Blocks .................................................... 1 Calculating the Gain Factor .........................................................5 Revision History ............................................................................... 2 Getting Started .................................................................................. 3 When the Impedance is Outside the Maximum AD5933/ AD5934 Measurable Range..........................................................7 Benefits of Adding an External AFE .......................................... 3 Example ..........................................................................................7 Rebiasing the DC Level................................................................ 3 Measuring a Complex Impedance ..............................................8 Reducing the Output Impedance ............................................... 3 Measuring Liquid ..........................................................................8 Configuring the Part ........................................................................ 5 Setting Up and Programming ..........................................................9 Selecting the Excitation Voltage ................................................. 5 Setting Up the Part ........................................................................9 Identifying the Impedance Range .............................................. 5 Programming the Part ..................................................................9 Choosing an Appropriate Value for RFB..................................... 5 REVISION HISTORY 11/13—Revision 0: Initial Version Rev. 0 | Page 2 of 12 Application Note AN-1252 GETTING STARTED BENEFITS OF ADDING AN EXTERNAL AFE CN-217 describes an external analog front end (AFE) designed to improve measurements. An example of the different dc bias voltages is shown Figure 3 for Range 1 where VDD = 5 V. 5.00V This AFE has two main benefits: to reduce the output impedance of the signal source and to rebias the excitation voltage signal. 3.74V 1.24V 2.50V REBIASING THE DC LEVEL 3V p-p 2.24V When connecting the impedance between VIN and VOUT, as shown in Figure 2, notice that the dc bias voltage is slightly different in the transmit stage and receive stage. 11834-003 1.76V 0.74V Figure 3. Excitation Output Voltage Without AFE ROUT Due to this mismatch, the dc level difference is amplified by the RFB, or, in other words, the ADC dynamic range is reduced. VOUT Additionally, a dc voltage across a sensor can polarize it and/or degrade it over the sensor lifetime. Z(ω) REDUCING THE OUTPUT IMPEDANCE RFB The internal output impedance depends on the amplitude voltage range selected and this may be as high as 2.4 kΩ. Therefore, since impedance cannot be considered negligible, it needs to be added into the equation. Typical values are shown in Table 2. VDD2 11834-002 VIN Figure 2. AD5933 Without External AFE The receiver dc offset is set to the ADC midscale, noninverting pin of the TIA, VDD/2, while the dc offset in the transmitter depends on the selected output voltage shown in Table 1. Table 1. DC Offset Voltage vs. Output Range for 3.3 V Range No. 1 2 3 4 DC Offset Voltage 1.48 0.76 0.31 0.173 V p-p 1.98 0.97 0.383 0.173 Table 2. System Output Impedance Range No. 1 to 4 (Adding external op amp) 1 2 3 4 Rev. 0 | Page 3 of 12 Typical Output Impedance, ZOUT >100 Ω 200 Ω 2.4 kΩ 1 kΩ 600 Ω AN-1252 Application Note Implementing these suggestions is relatively easy. Rebiasing the dc level is straightforward; just add a high-pass filter. If you are planning to design the high-pass filter, refer to AN-581 Application Note, Biasing and Decoupling Op Amps in Single Supply Applications. To reduce the output impedance and have the ability to measure low impedances, the recommended op amp of choice is the AD8606 (ZOUT = 1 Ω). You may consider the AD8602 as a lower cost alternative. Figure 4 shows the AFE implementation in the EVAL-AD5933EBZ, Rev. C1. The second AD8606 is used as a TIA due to the lower leakage and noise; the internal receive stage TIA is operating as a voltage follower. Rev. 0 | Page 4 of 12 VDD/2 1.48V VDD VDD 50kΩ VOUT ROUT 47nF A1 50kΩ A1, A2 ARE ½ AD8606 ZUNKNOWN RFB RFB 20kΩ VIN 20kΩ A2 VDD 20kΩ 20kΩ Figure 4. AD5933 with AFE 11834-004 The total measurable impedance is the unknown impedance and the system output impedance. To measure small impedances, adding the system output impedance may dramatically increase the range thus increasing the total measurable impedance. Consequently, this reduces the output current. To compensate, the value of RFB needs to increase. In other words, a high RFB value means worse SNR and lower sensitivity in your system. Application Note AN-1252 CONFIGURING THE PART Note that if you are rebiasing, the signal VDCOFFSET is VDD/2. Correctly configuring the AD5933/AD5934 is key to getting the most accurate measurement from the part. At this point, it is important to clarify that the equations are based on a headroom of 200 mV below VDD. SELECTING THE EXCITATION VOLTAGE CHOOSING AN APPROPRIATE SETTLING TIME The recommendation is to use the maximum output voltage because the SNR is degraded with lower amplitudes. IDENTIFYING THE IMPEDANCE RANGE The ratio between the maximum and minimum impedance is limited by the ADC resolution, supply, and dc offset for the selected range. The maximum ratio, ZMAX/ZMIN, is shown in Table 3. Table 3. Maximum Ratio Allowable Range No. 1 to 4 1 2 3 4 CALCULATING THE GAIN FACTOR To calculate the gain factor, it is always recommended to use a discrete resistor rather than a complex impedance. Ratio ×45 ×40 ×15 ×5 ×2 Remember to add the system output impedance into the impedance range. This depends on the selected range as shown in Table 2. If the unknown impedance range does not fit within the maximum range, split your impedance range into subgroups. If this is the case, your system should be capable of changing the TIA gain. This can be done by adding an external mux or switch (that is, ADG1419) with different RFB values as shown in Figure 5. VOUT The reason for calibrating the system with a discrete resistor is simple. The algorithm to calculate the phase is relative, in other words, the unknown impedance phase is the difference between the calibrated phase minus the unknown measured phase. Therefore, to avoid confusion, it is necessary to calibrate the part using a zero phase delay impedance. The recommended impedance value for calibration is 𝑅𝐶𝐴𝐿 = (𝑍𝑀𝐼𝑁 + 𝑍𝑀𝐴𝑋 ) × Recommendation Regardless of how one wants to calculate the gain factor, it is always recommended to measure the system phase for each frequency because a typical op amp phase is not constant for some frequencies as shown in the example in Figure 6. 0 RFB VS = ±2.5V Z(ω) VIN –45 PHASE (Degrees) MUX 3:1 11834-005 AD5933 Figure 5. Variable TIA Gain CHOOSING AN APPROPRIATE VALUE FOR RFB The internal ADC reference is VDD. It is important to guarantee that, in the worst case, the voltage generated by the TIA does not saturate the converter. The RFB value is defined as 𝑅𝐹𝐵 1 3 𝑉𝐷𝐷 − 0.2� × 𝑍𝑀𝐼𝑁 1 2 = × 𝑉𝐷𝐷 𝐺𝐴𝐼𝑁 �𝑉𝑃𝐾 + 2 − 𝑉𝐷𝐶𝑂𝐹𝐹𝑆𝐸𝑇 � –90 –135 � –180 10 where: VPK is the peak voltage of the selected output range. ZMIN is the minimum impedance. GAIN is the selected PGA gain, ×1 or ×5. VDD is the supply. VDCOFFSET is the dc offset voltage for the selected range shown in Table 1. 100 1k 10k 100k 1M FREQUENCY (Hz) 10M 100M 11834-006 DC Level Rebiasing No Rebiasing The part allows preexcitation of the impedance before beginning measurements. This is recommended if the imaginary part of the load is bigger than the real part or if the distance sensor load is high. The settling time is referred to as the actual output frequency. Therefore, if you are generating a frequency sweep, the delay is different for each excitation frequency. Figure 6. Phase Linearity Example There are different ways to calculate the gain factor depending on the frequency range and memory space constrains. Rev. 0 | Page 5 of 12 AN-1252 Application Note Calculating the Gain Factor Using Single Impedance and Single Frequency The impedance is excited with a single frequency. Typically, this is a frequency in the middle of your frequency sweep. Improvements: Best Fit Equation This is a method to correct offset and gain errors in the system, in other words, to linearize the system within a range. First, the gain factor is calculated using one of the methods described in this application note. This type of calibration is fast and requires minimum space in memory, but offers less precision than other methods. Once the gain factor is calculated, measure the impedance in the extremes of the range as shown in Table 7. Specifically, the AD5933 DFT engine uses a method called single point DFT. Rather than analyze the entire spectrum and calculate the energy for a given frequency, the algorithm returns a single bin that contains multiple frequencies, at approximately 976.56 Hz at 1MSPS. The equations to correct the measured value are 𝑍 =𝑀×𝑋+𝐶 (𝑍𝑀𝐴𝑋 − 𝑍𝑀𝐼𝑁 ) 𝑀= (𝑋𝑀𝐴𝑋 − 𝑋𝑀𝐼𝑁 ) For example, when configuring a measurement for a 1 kHz excitation signal, the bin will contain the energy stored from 976 Hz to 1952 Hz. 𝐶 = 𝑍𝑀𝐼𝑁 − (𝑀 × 𝑋𝑀𝐼𝑁 ) On the board, there are many devices generating noise at different frequencies, such as an SMPS regulator; this could add more energy to the bin that the energy measured only in the impedance. where: ZMAX is the real maximum impedance. ZMIN is the real minimum impedance. XMAX is the maximum measured impedance. XMIN is the minimum measured impedance. Calculating the Gain Factor Using Multipoint Frequencies, Single Impedance The best fit equation for each frequency can be calculated, but this increases memory requirements. This method is preferred if your frequency span is wide because it helps to reduce errors related to the op amp bandwidth as well as reducing bin errors. There are two different ways to implement this method. The first way is to generate a look-up table in your controller for the gain factor. The second way is to calculate the gain factor onthe-fly by adding an external mux/switch as shown in Figure 7. MEASURED IMPEDANCE In this case, calculate the gain factor for each frequency. Y = Mx + C ZMIN ZMAX REAL IMPEDANCE Figure 8. AD5933 with AFE VOUT D ADG849 S1 RCAL S2 Z(ω) RFB 11834-007 VIN Figure 7. AD5933 for On-the-Fly Calibration Rev. 0 | Page 6 of 12 11834-008 It is necessary to generate a sweep and repeat the measurement twice, once with RCAL and a second time with the impedance (Z(ω)). Application Note AN-1252 WHEN THE IMPEDANCE IS OUTSIDE THE MAXIMUM AD5933/AD5934 MEASURABLE RANGE In this case, the error is due to an assumption; the output impedance is 2.4. Figure 10 shows the error assuming that the output impedance is 2.4 ± 5%. To be considered negligible, the error added by the output impedance tolerance, ZMIN, should be at least 10 times larger than the amplifier output impedance. There are some limitations in terms of maximum and minimum measurable impedance. In this case, the easy way to overcome the limitation is by adding a series or parallel resistance to decrease or increase the impedance as needed. This method decreases the accuracy because the unknown impedance is measured artificially in a different range. 1.4 1.2 1.0 ERROR (%) EXAMPLE Consider a simple example that works for several scenarios, where VDD = 3.3 V. In this case condition, the unknown impedance range is from 4.7 kΩ to 47 kΩ. Because the AD5933 measures impedance, not capacitance or inductance, calculate the equivalent impedance for your maximum and minimum excitation frequency (see Table 7). 1950 3900 5850 7800 9750 11700 FREQUENCY (Hz) 11834-009 0 Figure 9. Experimental Results Error 1.8 1.6 1.4 Within Ratio Yes Yes Yes No No 1.2 ERROR (%) 0.8 0.4 0 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 FREQUENCY (kHz) Without AFE Range 2 ZMIN, 7.1 kΩ ZMAX, 49.4 kΩ 11834-010 0.2 Figure 10. Error with Output Impedance Tolerance If the system adds an external buffer, there are not big differences using gain ×1 or ×5 as shown in Figure 11. 0.25 Calculate RFB according to Table 6. Table 6. RFB Values for Different PGA Configurations 4.7kΩ AFE 1V p-p 4.7kΩ AFE 2V p-p 4.7kΩ AFE 2V p-p ×5 4.7kΩ AFE 1V p-p ×5 0.20 Without AFE Range 2 ×1, 7.4 kΩ ×5, 1.5 kΩ ERROR (%) Range 1 ×1, 6.1 kΩ ×5, 1.2 kΩ 47kΩ, NO AFE 1V p-p 47kΩ, 2.4kΩ –5% 47kΩ, 2.4kΩ +5% 0.6 Table 5. Maximum and Minimum Impedance to Measure Range 1 ZMIN, 4.9 kΩ ZMAX, 47.2 kΩ 4.7kΩ, NO AFE 1V p-p 4.7kΩ, 2.4kΩ –5% 4.7kΩ, 2.4kΩ +5% 1.0 Calibrate the system, using 1 𝑅𝐶𝐴𝐿 = (𝑍𝑀𝐼𝑁 + 𝑍𝑀𝐴𝑋 ) × = 17 kΩ 47kΩ AFE 1V p-p 47kΩ AFE 2V p-p 47kΩ AFE 2V p-p ×5 47kΩ AFE 1V p-p ×5 0.15 0.10 0.05 3 To analyze the results, note the performance results using multipoint calibration. 0 As shown in Figure 9 through Figure 12, the results without the AFE are slightly worse than those with an AFE. In all cases, the results are below the 1% except for Range 2 at low impedance. Rev. 0 | Page 7 of 12 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 FREQUENCY (kHz) Figure 11. Error With and Without PGA Stage Enabled for System with External AFE 11834-011 Range No. 1 to 4 1 2 3 4 Calculate ZMIN and ZMAX according to Table 5. With AFE Range 1 ×1, 6.8 kΩ ×5, 1.4 kΩ 0.6 0.2 Table 4. Selecting Ranges With AFE AD8606 ZMIN, 4.7 kΩ ZMAX, 47 kΩ 47kΩ NO AFE 1V p-p 47kΩ NO AFE 2V p-p 47kΩ AFE 1V p-p 47kΩ AFE 2V p-p 0.4 As shown in Table 4, only Range 1 and Range 2 can be used for the measurements; all four ranges can be used if an external buffer is added. For this example, the selected op amp is the AD8606 as shown in CN-217. AFE Using AD8606 Without AFE 4.7kΩ NO AFE 1V p-p 4.7kΩ NO AFE 2V p-p 4.7kΩ AFE 1V p-p 4.7kΩ AFE 2V p-p 0.8 AN-1252 Application Note If the system does not add an external buffer, there is a slight improvement using ×5 gain as shown in Figure 12. maximum data rate, the internal 1024-point buffer cannot store a full period; this adds a considerable error to the final result. If you need to measure below 1 kHz, the recommendation is to reduce the MCLK frequency. This increases the calculation time; the DFT engine clock is MCLK and requires an external filter to attenuate harmonics. Keep the Nyquist theorem in mind since the internal filters are optimized for the maximum sample rate of 1 MSPS. For example, to measure the impedance at 10 Hz, MCLK ≈16 MHz/100 ≈160 kHz 1.4 1.2 4.7kΩ NO AFE 2V p-p ×5 4.7kΩ NO AFE 2V p-p 4.7kΩ NO AFE 1V p-p 4.7kΩ NO AFE 1V p-p ×5 47kΩ NO AFE 2V p-p ×5 47kΩ NO AFE 2V p-p 47kΩ NO AFE 1V p-p 47kΩ NO AFE 1V p-p ×5 0.8 0.6 Inductance Can Be Measured 0.4 The examples found in the data sheet are based on capacitors, but there are no restrictions or reasons why you cannot measure an inductor. 0.2 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 FREQUENCY (kHz) MEASURING LIQUID 11834-012 0 Figure 12. Error With and Without Gain Stage Enabled The difference is appreciable using Range 2 for 4.7 kΩ. The reason behind this surprising result is the noise. The amplifier noise is roughly estimated as 𝑛 𝑇𝑂𝑇𝐴𝐿 = 𝑛 𝑇𝐼𝐴 + 𝑛𝐺𝐴𝐼𝑁 𝑛 𝑇𝐼𝐴 = �(𝑍𝑈𝑁𝐾𝑁𝑂𝑊𝑁 × To measure liquid, buy a commercial sensor or design your own. A sensor for this purpose typically has one or more parallel plates, rings, or nets as shown in Figure 13. RING PCB LIQUID 𝐺𝐴𝐼𝑁)2 + 𝑅𝐹𝐵 2 CONNECTORS 11834-013 ERROR (%) 1.0 The equations intentionally omit the bandwidth contribution and other noise sources added by the op amp itself. The PGA stage noise is constant while the TIA noise depends directly on the TIA gain. The worst case scenario is at maximum gain, ZLOAD = ZMIN. MEASURING A COMPLEX IMPEDANCE Figure 13. Example of Sensor to Measure Liquids The measured impedance is defined by 𝑍= 𝑙 𝜌 𝐴 where: l is the distance between plates (or traces). A is the area of the plates. ρ is the electric resistivity. To measure complex impedance, refer to the conversion table (see Table 7) to calculate the maximum and minimum impedance based on the excitation frequency. This section describes three points to keep in mind. Do Not Calibrate the System with a Complex Impedance The conductivity of a liquid is defined as 𝜎= Otherwise, phase results will be not as expected. This is explained in the Calculating the Gain Factor section. 1 𝜌 The parameters of the sensor are constant, thus the impedance changes are driven by the electric conductivity. There is a Minimum Excitation Frequency The ADC samples at MCLK/16 with a 1 MSPS maximum data rate. For an excitation frequency below 1 kHz sampling at the Rev. 0 | Page 8 of 12 Application Note AN-1252 SETTING UP AND PROGRAMMING 3. SETTING UP THE PART Programming the part is a multistep process. Begin by setting up the part as follows: • Internal oscillator: MCLK = 16.776 MHz • fSTART = 1950 Hz • ∆f = 975 Hz • Increments = 10 • PGA gain = ×1 • Output range = 2 V p-p • Settling time = 1 ms worst case • • • 4. 5. 2. Program the start frequency. 1.950 kHz � × 227 = 0x00F3C5 16.776 MHz ÷ 4 Write 0x00 to Register Address 0x82 𝐷=� • • • Write 0xE2 to Register Address 0x87 Program the number of increments. • Write 0x00 to Register Address 0x88 • Write 0x0A to Register Address 0x89 Program the delay in the measurements. The worst case is at maximum frequency, D = 1 ms × 11700 = 12 Reset the part. Write 0x10 to Register Address 0x81 Write 0x79 to Register Address 0x86 fMAX = 1950 + (975 × 10) = 11700 Hz Once the part is set up, follow Step 1 through Step 7 to program the part. • 975 Hz � × 227 = 0x0079E2 16.776 MHz ÷ 4 Write 0x00 to Register Address 0x85 𝐷=� PROGRAMMING THE PART 1. Program ∆f. 6. 7. • Write 0x00 to Register Address 0x8A • Write 0x0C to Register Address 0x8B Initialize the system. • Write 0x11 to Register Address: 0x80 • Wait several milliseconds. Follow the flowchart in Figure 14 to sweep the frequency. If you need a new sweep, it is not necessary to reset the part again. Simply place the part in standby mode and program the registers again. Write 0xF3 to Register Address 0x83 Write 0xC5 to Register Address 0x84 • Rev. 0 | Page 9 of 12 Write 0x30 to Register Address: 0x80 Application Note AN-1252 START FREQUENCY SWEEP REGISTER ADDRESS: 0x80 DATA: 0x21 READ STATUS REGISTER REGISTER ADDRESS: 0x8F STATUS REGISTER NO [DATA AND 0x02] > 0 YES READ RESULT REGISTER ADDRESSES, 0x94 0x95 0x96 0x97 DO YOU WANT TO AVERAGE THE MEASUREMENTS? --AVERAGE; AVERAGE== 0 NO REPEAT THE MEASUREMENT REGISTER ADDRESS: 0x80 DATA: 0x41 YES READ STATUS REGISTER ADDRESS: 0x8F STATUS REGISTER [DATA AND 0x02] > 0 NO GENERATE NEXT FREQUENCY REGISTER ADDRESS: 0x80 DATA: 0x31 YES DONE POWER DOWN THE PART 11834-014 REGISTER ADDRESS: 0x80 DATA: 0xA0 Figure 14. Flowchart Rev. 0 | Page 10 of 12 Application Note AN-1252 Table 7. Example of Impedance Conversion Schematic Impedance Phase 𝑍𝑅 = 𝑅 R 1 𝐶𝑤𝑗 |𝑍𝐶𝑀𝐴𝑋 | = 𝑍𝐿 = 𝐿𝑤𝑗 tan−1 (𝐿𝑤) = 1 2𝜋𝑓𝑀𝐼𝑁 𝐶 1 |𝑍𝐶𝑀𝐼𝑁 | = 2𝜋𝑓𝑀𝐴𝑋 𝐶 L |𝑍𝐿𝑀𝐴𝑋 | = 2𝜋𝑓𝑀𝐴𝑋 𝐿 |𝑍𝐿𝑀𝐼𝑁 | = 2𝜋𝑓𝑀𝐼𝑁 𝐿 R C 1 1 1 = + = 𝑌𝑇 𝑍𝑇 𝑍𝑅 𝑍𝐶 1 1 + 𝑅𝐶𝑤𝑗 𝑌𝑇 = + 𝐶𝑤𝑗 = 𝑅 𝑅 𝑅 𝑍𝑇 = 1 + 𝑅𝐶𝑤𝑗 𝑅 |𝑍𝑇𝑀𝐴𝑋 | = 2 �1 + (2𝜋𝑅𝐶𝑓𝑀𝐼𝑁 ) 2 |𝑍𝑇𝑀𝐼𝑁 | = �12 C |𝑍𝑇𝑀𝐴𝑋 | = |𝑍𝑇𝑀𝐼𝑁 | = + (2𝜋𝑅𝐶𝑓𝑀𝐴𝑋 ) 2 �12 + (2𝜋𝑅𝐶𝑓𝑀𝐼𝑁 ) 2 2𝜋𝑅𝐶𝑓𝑀𝐼𝑁 �12 + (2𝜋𝑅𝐶𝑓𝑀𝐴𝑋 ) 2 2𝜋𝑅𝐶𝑓𝑀𝐴𝑋 𝑍𝑇 = 𝑍𝑅 + 𝑍𝐿 R 𝑍𝑇 = 𝑅 + 𝐿𝑤𝑗 |𝑍𝑇𝑀𝐴𝑋 | = �𝑅 2 + (2𝜋𝐿𝑓𝑀𝐴𝑋 )2 L |𝑍𝑇𝑀𝐼𝑁 | = �𝑅 2 + (2𝜋𝐿𝑓𝑀𝐼𝑁 )2 R C L 𝑍𝑇 = 𝑍(𝑅||𝐶) + 𝑍𝐿 𝑅 𝑍𝑇 = + 𝐿𝑤𝑗 1 + 𝑅𝐶𝑤𝑗 𝑍𝑇 = 𝜋 2 𝜋 180 × = 90° 2 𝜋 Use higher capacitance to calculate the lowest impedance and minimum capacitance value to calculate highest impedance Use lower inductor to calculate the lowest impedance and maximum inductor value to calculate highest impedance 0 𝑅𝐶𝑤 − tan−1 𝑅 1 = − tan−1 𝑅𝐶𝑤 tan−1 𝑅 𝑍𝑇 = 𝑍𝑅 + 𝑍𝐶 1 1 + 𝑅𝐶𝑤𝑗 𝑍𝑇 = 𝑅 + = 𝐶𝑤𝑗 𝐶𝑤𝑗 R Constant impedance 𝐶𝑤 𝜋 − tan−1 � � = − 0 2 𝜋 180 = −90° − × 𝜋 2 𝑍𝐶 = C Notes 0 tan−1 = 0 𝑅 −𝑅𝐿𝐶𝑤 2 + 𝐿𝑤𝑗 + 𝑅 1 + 𝑅𝐶𝑤𝑗 𝑅𝐶𝑤 𝐶𝑤 − tan−1 1 0 𝜋 = − tan−1 𝑅𝐶𝑤 − 2 tan−1 tan−1 𝐿𝑤 𝑅 tan−1 𝐿𝑤 𝑅𝐶𝑤 − tan−1 2 𝑅 − 𝑅𝐿𝐶𝑤 1 Rev. 0 | Page 11 of 12 𝑗 = √−1 𝑗 2 = −1 AN-1252 Application Note NOTES ©2013 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. Trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners. AN11834-0-11/13(0) Rev. 0 | Page 12 of 12

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